Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin synthesized from glucose. It's only vitamins for animals that have lost the Gulonolactone Oxidase, which is the last step in ascorbic acid synthesis. These animals include primates, bats, guinea pigs and poultry. The reaction:
Functions Vitamin C is mainly active as an antioxidant, because it sacrifices itself to prevent the oxidation of other molecules. Vitamin C helps to create collagen that strengthens the blood vessel wall, forms the tissue of the scars and provides a matrix to bone growth. Vitamin C also helps metabolism of amino acids and thyroxin synthesis and helps absorb iron. Many people believe that vitamin C also helps the body to fight cold. Although this is not fully demonstrated, research has shown that vitamin C increases the immune defense of the body.
Ascorbate is involved in 2 general-type reactions, each of which uses molecular oxygen to hydroxylation:
1. Monooxygenase: Cu ++, O2
: Norepinephrine synthesis, peptide hormone amidation
· Norepinephrine synthesis in the adrenal gland: Dopamin + O2 + ascorbate, + Cu + Norepinephrine + H2O + dehydroasebac + Cu ++
peptide (glycine) peptide-NH2 + glyoxylate (CHO-CHOOH)
Includes: CCK, vasopression, gastrin release factor, gastrin, melanotropin, growth hormone release factor, MSH, corticotropin and calcitonin. [Dioxygenases:ketoglutarateforexample:hydrolysisofcarnitinesynthesisbydegradationofcollagen
· Hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen:
This is the extracellular matrix of collagen, elastin, and component C1q and perhaps acetylcholinesterase. The function of ascorbate here, similarly to monooxygenase reactions, serves as a reducing agent for the Fe ++ values used in the reaction. The failure of hydroxylate collagen that leads to a survey
· Tyrosine degradation (4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxigenase):
Decreasing levels of ascorbic acid result in decreased muscle carnitine levels, thereby decreasing fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria. Muscle synthesized on the protein, freed free upon degradation of the protein; can be found in proteins such as histones, calmodulin, myosin, cytochrome. Overall, it reduces vitamin C, reduces carnitine and then reduces beta-oxidation, and muscles rely on other forms of energy as it can not effectively transfer fatty acids to mitochondria
. Scurvy of disability is the name given to someone who is severely absent from vitamin C. Recognition of scurvy symptoms comes from Egyptian Papryrus, approx. In 1550. Documentation of scurvy symptoms also exists during the discovery of Jacques Cartier in 1535. At this time, the Indians taught Cartier to use a white cedar extract for the treatment of seafarers dying of darkness. At that time, no one knew exactly what caused this until a British doctor decided to carry out a study that provided some calcareous lime juice. Those who consumed lime juice did not produce scurvy, so they gave them the nickname "limeys". Finally, the factor was isolated from lime juice and it was found that the 6-glucose structure is ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
Symptoms include microcytic anemia, bleeding, bleeding gums, muscles begin to degenerate, to cure wounds. However, vitamin C can easily be reversed by moderate doses of vitamin.
Symptoms of scurvy: o soft bones (loss of collagen matrix, or loss of sulfonation) o gum bleeding, dental loss (cell matrix loss) o capillary bleeding (loss of extracellular matrix carrier capillaries) o slowed wound healing (dependent on collagen and extracellular matrix) o (Collagen Structural Change in Hair) o Psychosis, Hysteria, Depression (? Loss of Neurotransmitters)?
Individuals endanger vitamin C deficiency with enhanced steroid or aromatic drug intake. They increase the need for ascorbate for the hydroxylate and remove the compounds from the body. Such types of medicines include, for example, oral contraceptives, toxins, barbiturates and stress-related glucocorticoids.
Cigarette consumers have a high requirement for vitamin C too. These individuals had significantly lower serum concentrations. This is probably caused by toxins in the smoke that promote dangerous oxidation and free radical reactions in the lungs and in the body; preventing and correcting these reactions reduces the ascorbate's body. It is recommended that smokers increase their intake of ascorbate to 100 mg / day.
Toxicity Although Vitamin C is water-soluble vitamin, it may be dangerous if you add excess vitamin C. Sources o Citrus fruits (eg Orange, Kiwi and mango) o Cabbage-like vegetables (eg Spinach) o Dark green vegetables (eg Broccoli, and Brussels sprouts) o Papaya or melon or strawberry or red paprika or salad or tomato or potato