History of Yoga and Different Philosophies

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Yoga, in today's world, has become a commodity and a revelation. Probably India's largest cultural export, yoga has become a mass culture phenomenon. All of our popular assumptions about ancient science actually date back to the last 100 years. Yoga has been renewed for thousands of years. Yoga, today includes a complex posture ( asanas ) – which lasts long or is performed quickly – with respiratory control pranayam . However, ancient Hindu texts, such as Bhagvad Gita and Patanjali Yoga, do not mention postures and breathing control. More emphasis has been put on the theory and practice of meditation ( dhyana ).

So what's missing here? How did yoga go through such a transformation as it was used in classic scripts? To understand this, let's briefly look at the history of yoga.

Yoga is first mentioned in the oldest Hindu scriptures, Vedas. The Vedas are a collection of texts that describe the rites, hymns, mantras and songs used by Brahmans, or the Vedic practices. The first mention of yoga can be found in Rig Veda (1700-500) in the hymn of Sun-God. The Vedas are known to contain the oldest known yogic teachings, and these teachings found in the Vedas are Vedic Yoga. This is characterized by ceremonies and ceremonies that strive to exceed the limits of the mind. During Vedic Yoga, people practiced the ritualistic way of life. Different rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices were considered as a means of joining the spiritual world.

Pre-Classical Period 500-200 BCE:

Vedic Exercises or Brahman redefined and developed Yoga, then documented their beliefs and practices Upanishads . Upanishads is a huge work that contains over 200 scripts. The Upanishads changed the idea of ​​the Vedic ritual sacrifice and taught the principles of sacrificing the ego with self-knowledge, action ( Karma yoga) and wisdom Jnana yoga. The Upanishads also introduced acoustic spells, of which the most significant were & # 39; OM which is the spell of the Supreme Being.

Yoga shares some of its features with Buddhism. In the 6th century, Buddha began to teach Buddhism, which focused on meditation and the Asana science. During this period, several principles of yoga theory and practice were formulated. Siddharth Gautam was the first Buddhist who practiced yoga and became "Awakened" or "Enlightened" One ( Buddha ) and thus freed from future rebirths, recognizing the extinction of suffering ( nirvana) ) at the age of 35 years. Among the religious groups in India, the Jaines were the last to take the teachings of Yoga. In 1200 BC, the great Jain teacher, Rishaba, who is a trader of jaynism, emphasized the principles set by yoga, which included efforts to unleash the spirit.

Later, around 500, Bhagvad Gita became a script. Today is one of the oldest scripts that defines yoga. The Gita is primarily the result of a conversation between Prince Arjuna and Lord Krsna. Gita mainly claims that our lives must be filled with actions, regardless of the benefits. Our actions should be free from the ego and be benevolent. The Bhagvad Gita repeated the doctrines found in the Upanishads. Gita claims that every human being must follow Bhakti (devotion), Jnana (Knowledge) and Karma (unselfish actions). The teachings of Gita Bhadvad seek to unite the Bhakti Yoga, the Jnana Yoga, and the Karma Yoga that each is responsible for the other.

Classic Period (200 BCE-500 CE)

The classic period is primarily characterized by the Sage Patanjali's Yoga screen created in the 2nd century. It consists of 195 aphorisms or sutras (from the Sanskrit word, that is, a thread) that explains Raja's yoga or the classical yoga and underlining principle, the eightfold way of Patanjali in & # 39; Ashtanga Yoga; (The eight limbs of the classic yoga). The Patanjali sutras are the first compilation of Yoga philosophy.

Sage Patanjali believed that each consists of one material ( prakriti ) and the spirit ( purusha ). He also considered that the two should be separated to cleanse the spirit – this rigid contradiction is the Vedic and Pre-Classical Yoga, which is the union of body and spirit.

Classic Classical Yoga (500-1500CE):

During this period, lawyers have undergone sea change. Here yoga is no longer trying to liberate the person from reality, but teachers are a person who accepts the scene and lives in it. This period supports the teachings of Vedanta (a philosophical system based on the teachings of Upanishads) that there is a fundamental unit in all unity. During this period, the yogis began to exploit the hidden power of the human body. As a result, yogic masters have designed many new techniques that lead to healthy bodies and prolong life. Hatha Yoga was the result of teachings that are now widely practiced in the world.

Modern Yoga:

Yoga in the mid-19th century brought to the attention of a trained western audience, along with other topics of Indian philosophy, when yoga masters began to travel west and paid attention and attention. following. Swami Vivekananda was the first Hindu teacher who actively promoted and mediated various aspects of yoga. He came to talk to the Chicago Religious Parliament in 1893. During his conversation, Swami Vivekananda, a student of St Ramakrishna, the United States Brothers and Sisters of America. many students doing yoga.

At the beginning of the 21st century, Hatha Yoga was consistently practiced and followed in India by the works of T. Krishnamacharya, Swami Sivananda and other yoga practitioners of Hatha. In the 1930s and 40s, the public received greater publicity thanks to public recognition. In 1965, Shrila Prabhupada came to the United States and founded the International Society of Krishna Consciousness (ISKON). Bhakthi Yoga (Yoga for Dedication).

Most of the prominent Indian teachers promoting yoga originated from two families: a Sivananda Saraswati (1887-1963) and another Tirumalai Krishnamacharya (1888-1989). Many Yoga Masters, including BKS Iyengar (1918-2014), K. Pattabhi Jois (1915-2009), Swami Vishnudevananda (1927-1993) and Swami Satchidananda (1914-2002) actively taught Hatha Yoga philosophies.

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