Antioxidants and nutrition

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Understanding Basic Antioxidant Science

Q. What is antioxidant?

Since the earliest days of the food industry, the scientist has observed that common foods exposed to normal premises have deteriorated over time, leading to deterioration and waste. The results of scientific experiments suggested that oxygen in the air caused food degradation. In finding tools to prevent or protect the destruction or deterioration of common raw materials, experimental and defective research ultimately leads to the discovery of certain natural substances that increase food stability. Based on their observations and results, the early scientist concluded that these natural substances should contain chemical components that reacted directly with oxygen and therefore the name of the antioxidant was born. Nowadays, many years of continuous experimentation and analytical evaluation show that most antioxidants (A.O.) do not respond directly to oxygen but react with free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) chemical molecules. Thus, antioxidants (A.O.) are chemicals that deactivate, eliminate or consume free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS molecules). What does free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) mean?

Free radicals are a chemical substance or molecule that contains at least one reactive non-binding electron (free electron). Reactive Oxygen Types (ROS) is a chemical substance or molecule that contains at least one oxygen atom with a reactive non-bound electron (free electron). ROS can be generally formulated in the human body by the following physiological pathway: (1) degradation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) through a metal catalyst of a naturally-occurring biochemical molecule which is (2) a hydroxyl radical (OH) and a super oxygen anion radical (O2 ~). Both (OH) and (• O2 ~) can react with lipid molecules and amino acids to form other ROSs

Q. Is ROS good or bad?

Reactive Oxygen Types (ROS) can be good and bad. Many reactive oxygen species are produced in human physiological processes to initiate the specific biochemical reactions needed to maintain normal bodily functions. Some ROSs are used to kill bacteria and viruses. However, low levels of unplanned ROS formation and / or antioxidants in the blood and certain body tissues may exert an excessive ROS in our body that may result in an abnormal immune response if it can not indirectly lead to disease and disease

Q. Where are antioxidants (A.O.) in nature?

Antioxidants can be found in plants (this includes leaves, stems, fruits, flowers, roots, even the cortex), animals and humans. These antioxidants are naturally occurring antioxidants. There are also artificial or synthetic antioxidants

Q. What are the differences between synthetic antioxidants and naturally occurring antioxidants?
Most synthetic A.O. in fact the naturally occurring A.O. The main difference is synthetic A.O. and natural A.O. look-a-like to be synthetic A.O. usually contain only one analog (type) of naturally occurring A.O. molecules (e.g. vitamin E-d-alpha-tocopherol). Synthetic antioxidants are generally present in naturally occurring A.O. imitating the structure of the most active analogue. Still, at least four active vitamin E analogs are naturally found (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). The presence of all the isomers of vitamin E promotes the improvement of the solubility of total E-vitamin and depending on the nature of the ROS molecules, the four isomers together have a higher A.O. Effect (synergism) as any unique A.O. used on its own when ROS is captured. Thus, natural antioxidants are usually formed as a group of analogs or isomers. Another example is the natural A.O. green tea extract. Green Tea Extract contains a class of polyphenols. The most active polyphenols of green tea extract are A.O. the so-called catechins (EGCG most active). There are currently 3 more active isomers for catechin, EGC, EC and ECG. It is important to know that natural antioxidant structures are native to plants, fruits and vegetables from which they are geographically located. Thus, he sees that natural antioxidants can vary widely by structure and activity

Q. What are the examples of prepared antioxidants and naturally occurring antioxidants?

Some naturally occurring A.O. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid), Vitamin E-Alpha and Tocopherols, Vitamin D3, Ubiquinol, Co-Enzyme Q-12, Uriosav, Citric Acid, L-Methionine, Cysteine, Glutathione L-Glycine, ), thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, squalane, squalene, pineapple, limonene, catechins, tannins, flavonoids, catechols and other substances to a lesser extent. Some examples of synthetic A.O. BHT, BHA, Bisphenol, hydroquinone, 2,5-Di-tert-butyl hydroquinone, Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Synthetic A.O. usually mimics the natural A.O. but it does not dissolve and is safe. It is noted that citric acid, N-acetyl cysteine ​​and other amino acids are not really A.O. but inhibits ROS formation by chelating metals (deactivation) that trigger the production of ROS.

Q. You mentioned earlier that antioxidants are found in plants and humans. What are antioxidants in plants?

A.O. in plants helps protect plant natural oils against air oxidation. These natural oils often help to reduce insects and other predators. Some natural oils act as gender attraction. Many A.O. also perform anti-microbiological activities. AO Protects plants against harmful microorganisms

Q What is the function of antioxidants in humans?

A.O. helps to stabilize the functions of the body (for example, to maintain the pH of the blood, to participate in numerous catalytic reactions). AO reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body. AO is also part of our natural immune system. AO is used in our body to help detoxify the disease-causing infection and kill the associated organisms. Furthermore, A.O. also helps to protect your bloodstream and heart function

Q Do you think antioxidants are suitable for preventing illnesses and fighting infections
. According to the latest data from a number of natural antioxidants, A.O. the supplement provides assistance in overcoming the disease and speeding up the recovery of bacterial and viral infections

Q. There are health signs or symptoms that may indicate an effective level of antioxidants in one person may be inadequate

Yes. Weakness, persistent cough, chest pain, dry skin, dry mouth, or increase in normal blood pressure

Q. What foods can you eat, which will have useful antioxidants?

Vitamin C, citric acid: orange, lemon, grapefruit, limes, vegetables; Vitamin E, squalane, squalene: nuts, fish, fish oil, bran or wheat food (not processed); Polyphenols, catechins, procyanidines: grapes, pomegranates, blueberries, green tea, white tea, blueberries; Beta carotene: carrots, sweet potatoes; Cysteine ​​and L-Methionine: Meat, Eggs, Vegetables

Q. Can antioxidants be harmful?

Based on today's knowledge it probably is not. But care should be taken to synthetic A.O. Many synthetic A.O. when administered moderately for prolonged periods, it has been reported to cause tumor promoting in mice and animal studies. Like some A.Os, BHT and BHA are metabolised to chemicals that sometimes mimic the estrogen. Too many such estrogenic compounds can have an adverse health effect for both males and females. To a lesser extent, some natural A.O. Depending on the level of consumption and the individual, unwanted side effects may occur. Too much vitamin C (> 10 g / day) and iron supplements combined may produce excessive amounts of ROS with the Fenton reaction. The presence of large amounts of ROS in the bloodstream can disrupt the normal balance of human immune response, especially in anemic patients. Vitamin E (> 5000 IU / day) may lead to excessive A.O. storage in fat tissues. However, there are no long-term clinical studies that suggest that excessive intake of vitamin E supplements can cause harmful health effects in humans. Can antioxidant supplements be used in everyday healthcare systems to maintain the effective antioxidant levels required for healthy activity?

Yes, I suggest people do it. Could you briefly summarize how one uses antioxidants in our everyday life?

Plastic plates, plastic buckets, plastic forks, Tupperware, cars, rubber bows, tires, airplanes, electronics, computers, drugs, jams, drinks, toys, cosmetics, computer accessories, foods (chips, breads, ), Building Materials, Implants, Prostheses

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